The NUTRITIOUS GARDEN . ORG is a "Not - for - Profit" Organization. We Teach You to Have GOOD HEALTH from Choosing GOOD FOOD (Natural NUTRITION ). And, We Show You HOW To GROW All of It !
<p><font face="Georgia, serif"><span style="font-size: 18px !important;">Soil  Needs  &quot;Humus&quot;,  Micro-Biota,  Good  Drainage,  Ground  Cover</span></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><span style="font-size: 18px !important;">We know that You are as excited as we are . . .  About Learning How to  Grow  Real  Nutrition, </span></span></font><span style="font-size: 18px !important;"> in  <b style="font-family: Tahoma, sans-serif;">Really  Nutritious  Soil. </b><font face="Georgia, serif"> So,</font> </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 18px;">Here  we  Go,  in  Our  Own  Format !</span></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><span style="font-size: 14px;">_____________________________________________________________________________</span></font></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px !important;">We have Already discussed that the  ONLY  Way  we  can  &quot;Feed&quot;  our  Plants  </span></span><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><font face="Georgia, serif">Is to  Nourish  Our  Growing  Soil.   </font></span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;">OK,  So How Do We  &quot;Nourish Our Growing Soil&quot;  ??   </span><font face="Georgia, serif" style="font-size: 14px;">Let's Look at Each  Component  (And  Each  Step)  in  turn.  </font><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;">For  Really  Nutritious  Growing  Soil,  You Will Need the Following </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;"> </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;"> --  So that the Plants can Get what they Need in Order to  Feed  Themselves:</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;"> &gt;  Soil  Porosity  -  Use Silica Sand (1/3 in Planting Soil Mix)  -  So that Water Flows through Freely.</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"> &gt;  Soil Biota   -  The &quot;Complete Menu&quot; -  Earthworms, Good Nematodes, Microbial Bacteria, Mycellium, and Of Course, </span></span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Michorrhizae (Fungii).</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;"> &gt;  CLEAN (and Complete) Organic Material  -  This  Begins with  &quot;Cool  COMPOSTING&quot;  - and  Ends with &quot;Humus&quot;.  &quot;</span><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><font face="Georgia, serif">Humus&quot; is the Second (1/3 in the Soil Mix)  -  to Feed the Soil Biota  -  So that these Organisms </font></span><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><font face="Georgia, serif">Can Convert the Existing Soil Chemicals into a form That the Plants Can Actually USE !</font></span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;"> &gt;  Micro-Nutrients  (&quot;Trace Minerals&quot;)  -  Mostly Obtained From the Clay - We Use Clean Clay (The Final  1/3 in the Soil Mix);  Screened - No Rocks !</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;"> &gt;  Macro-Nutrients  -  (Big Volume Minerals)  -  Primarily  Calcium (Ca)  and  Phosphorus (P).</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;"> &gt;  Water  -  We Irrigate with the (Calculated) Correct Amount of Water  - <span style="font-size: 18px;"> </span></span><font face="Georgia, serif"><span style="font-size: 18px !important;"><span style="font-size: 14px !important;">And We Apply it at the  Correct  Interval</span></span><span style="font-size: 18px;"><span style="font-size: 18px;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">  (Day Frequency).</span></span></span></font></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;"> &gt;  Ground Cover(s)  -  These are to Retain Moisture,  Provide more Organic food,  and  To  Completely  Shield  the Soil Biota from the Sun</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;"> &gt;  The Correct Soil &quot;pH&quot;  -  The Ideal Range is  pH  6.0 to 6.5  -  to  Insure  Nutrient  Absorption.</span></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><span style="font-size: 14px;">___________________________________________________________________________</span></font></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 18px !important;">Let's  Discuss  Each  One  --  In   Order . . .</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 18px;"><u>Porosity</u>  -  This  One  is  Easy !  Just  Use  Silica  Sand  (1/3 of  Total  Soil  Mix).   This  is  So that Water Flows through the Soil Freely ! </span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 18px;"><u>Soil Biota</u>  -  <span style="font-size: 18px !important;">The  </span></span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><span style="font-size: 18px !important;">&quot;Complete  Menu&quot; -  Earthworms,  Good  Nematodes,  Microbial  Bacteria,  Mycellium,  and  Of  Course,  </span></span></span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><span style="font-size: 18px !important;">Michorrhizae  (Fungii).  This  one  comes  from  Carefully  Following  the  Correct  Procedure.</span></span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 18px;">Remember :  </span><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><font face="Georgia, serif">QUALITY  HUMUS  Comes  From  CLEAN,  COMPLETE  COMPOST  </font></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><font face="Georgia, serif">HERE  WE  GO  . . .</font></span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;">How  should  I  Process  My  Compost,  and  </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;">What  </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;">Should  </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;">M</span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;">y  Compost</span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; background-color: transparent;"> </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px !important;"> Be  Made  From ? ?        </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; background-color: transparent;"> </span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><font face="Georgia, serif"> Here   is   the   ANSWER ;   With   a   &quot;Good   Stuff / Bad   Stuff&quot;   Listing :</font></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><font face="Georgia, serif">  &gt;  List  the  &quot;GOOD  Ingredients&quot;  for  Your  Compost  Bin  or  Pile:   </font></span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;"> 1. )  Any Recently Harvested Vegetation (Avoid any Weeds with Mature Seeds), which has been </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;"> Thoroughly Chopped Up (Fairly Fine),  and has  NO  Spray  Residue  on  it  (Herbicides)  OR  Dry  Powder  Chemicals.   And  </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;"> 2. )  Any  FINELY  Chopped  Wood - Leaves, Bark, Small Limbs - BUT ONLY IF They are NOT  D</span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;">iseased, and  HAVE  NOT  Been  Sprayed  with  ANY  CHEMICALS!</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px !important;"><font face="Georgia, serif">  &gt;  List  the  &quot;BAD  Ingredients&quot;  for  Your  Compost  Bin  or  Pile:  --  </font></span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;">  NO Partially BURNED Vegetation  --    NO Diseased Vegetation  --    </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 14px;">NO SPRAYED Vegetation   --    NO Vegetation From ANY &quot;UnKnown&quot; Source</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><font face="Georgia, serif">   Also   EXCLUDE   H</font></span><font face="Georgia, serif">ousehold Garbage   --          NO Paper (Any kind - Ink is Poison)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   NO UNKNOWN (or Mixed) Refuse          --          NO Wet Items (Who Knows What Liquid)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   NO Raked-up or Swept-up Trash          --          And  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   NO Fabrics (Most will be &quot;Polyester&quot;, a Petro-Chemical Product.)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   and   NO Grass or Leaves from ANY &quot;Grass-Catcher&quot; or &quot;Power Rake&quot;  . . .  UNLESS</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">        The Clippings have been Spread Thin -and- have Been Baked in the Full Sun for 3 Days !  </font></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">USE   the   &quot;COOL&quot;   METHOD   OF   COMPOSTING   (Which is . . . )</span></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   1.   Well Sheltered from the Sun and Rain,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   2.   Size should be About - a   4 Ft. Square (or Dia.) - and   About   4 Ft. High,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   3.   Have a   LARGE Dia. ( 6&quot; Plus) Ventilated Chimney Up Through the Center of the Pile,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   4.   Layers   should be   About   24&quot; thick and then Pressed Down Lightly to   16 - 18&quot; thick,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   5.   Add a 2&quot; Topping Layer of   &quot;Potting Soil&quot; with   Red Worms added (earthworms),</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   6.   Water Mist   LIGHTLY -   2 or More Times a Week, depending on Temp and Humidity</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   7.   Repeat by Adding   Another 2 Layers,   2   Weeks Later - Until it's Over   4 Ft. High.</font></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">&gt; FOLLOW   THIS   GUIDE   METICULOUSLY -  </span></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">        Chopping Vegetation into Fine Pieces will Speed the Compost Toward Maturity - </font><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;"> in   6 Months or Less.  </span><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">Quality HUMUS Will be the Result . . .</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">_____________________________________________________________________________</span></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Micro-Nutrients    --   Obtained From the Clay - Use Cleaned Clay (1/3 in Soil Mix) - No Rocks !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">_____________________________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Macro-Nutrients    --   Especially Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">_____________________________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Correct Soil &quot;pH&quot;    --   The Ideal Range is   6.0 to 6.5   (Mildly Acid)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">  Acidify My Soil - How ?</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">THERE IS S-O-O MUCH FALSE INFORMATION GIVEN OUT ON THIS ONE ...</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">PEAT MOSS - Spagnum Moss Decomposes to Form &quot;Peat Moss&quot; - When Organic Vegetation is Fully Decomposed, it is N-E-U-T-R-A-L -- pH = 7.0</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">IT IS THE SAME FOR PINE NEEDLES, OAK LEAVES, OAT STRAW, HARVEST WASTE, ROOTS, SHREDDED STUMPS, SAWDUST, AGED MANURE, SPOILED HAY ...   I Could List About 300 More.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Simple Fact is This: Any of These Might be Acidic at First; Pine Needles and Oak Leaves are About pH 3.5-4.5 (VERY Acidic) When they first hit the Ground. In a Short Time - They begin to Decompose -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">They then Very Quickly (in 2 to 4 Weeks) Return to Neutral - pH = 7.0.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; You Can Use &quot;Elemental Sulfur&quot; - I buy it in 50 lb. Bags - Rated at 50 % Sulfur Content. In 5 Years, I would have helped Lower my Soil pH from 8.2 Down to 5.5-6.0 pH. I DO NOT Have 5 Years to Wait.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">I Only Use SULFUR as a Maintenance Additive.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; THE ONLY CHEMICAL (Readily Available) THAT CAN WORK FOR ME IN A SEASON or Two - IS ...   &gt;&gt; FERROUS SULFATE &lt;&lt;. THAT IS IT !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">I BUY 50 lb. Bags which are Rated at 50 % Content - And It WORKS -   IT WORKS VERY WELL !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">I HAVE HAD VERY LOW SUCCESS RATES WITH ANYTHING ELSE !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">NOTE:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Most soil &quot;Micro-Organisms&quot; live close to plant roots and are often referred to as :  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">      &gt; Rhizo-Bacteria, or Microbial Bacteria.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Bacteria live in the soil and water interface, including the film of moisture surrounding each soil particle.   Some are able to swim along by means of flagella. The majority of the beneficial soil dwelling bacteria need oxygen (O2) (and are thus termed AEROBIC BACTERIA). AEROBIC Bacteria are the most active in a soil that is moist (but not saturated).   Water Saturated Soil will deprive AEROBIC Bacteria of the oxygen (O2) that they MUST HAVE TO SURVIVE.</font></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">_________________________________________________________________________________</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">IN   ORDER . . .</span></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">_________________________________________________________________________________</font></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">Porosity    --   Use Sand (1/3 in Soil Mix)    --   So that Water Flows through Freely  </span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">_________________________________________________________________________________</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">Soil Biota    --   Earthworms, Good Nematodes, Microbial Bacteria, and Micorrhizae (Fungii)</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">_________________________________________________________________________________</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">CLEAN Organic Material    --   Begins with Compost -- and Ends with HUMUS</span></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">             Use Humus  (1/3 in Soil Mix)  --   to Feed the Soil Biota   --   So that these Organisms</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">             Can Convert the Soil Chemicals into a form that the Plants Can Actually USE !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">GOOD   HUMUS   Comes   From   CLEAN   COMPOST</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">What   Should   My   Compost   Be   Made   From ?</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   &gt; Here   is   the   ANSWER   This   Question,   With   a   &quot;Good   Stuff / Bad   Stuff&quot;   Listing :</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; A List of the &quot;GOOD Ingredients&quot; for Your Compost Bin or Pile:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">  1.   Any Recently Harvested Vegetation (Avoid any Weeds with Mature Seeds), which has been</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">        Thoroughly Chopped up (Fine),   and has NO Spray Residue on it (Herbicides).  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">  2.   Any FINELY Chopped Wood - Leaves, Bark, Small Limbs - BUT ONLY IF They are NOT  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">        Diseased, and   HAVE NOT Been Sprayed with ANY CHEMICALS!</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; A List of the &quot;BAD Ingredients&quot; for Your Compost Bin or Pile:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   NO Partially BURNED Vegetation          --          NO Diseased Vegetation</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   NO SPRAYED Vegetation                              --          NO Vegetation From ANY UnKnown Source</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   Also   EXCLUDE   Household Garbage   --          NO Paper (Any kind - Ink is Poison)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   NO UNKNOWN (or Mixed) Refuse          --          NO Wet Items (Who Knows What Liquid)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   NO Raked-up or Swept-up Trash          --          And  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   NO Fabrics (Most will be &quot;Polyester&quot;, a Petro-Chemical Product.)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   and   NO Grass or Leaves from ANY &quot;Grass-Catcher&quot; or &quot;Power Rake&quot;  . . .  UNLESS</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">        The Clippings have been Spread Thin -and- have Been Baked in the Full Sun for 3 Days !  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">USE   the   &quot;COOL&quot;   METHOD   OF   COMPOSTING   (Which is . . . )</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   1.   Well Sheltered from the Sun and Rain,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   2.   Size should be About - a   4 Ft. Square (or Dia.) - and   About   4 Ft. High,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   3.   Have a   LARGE Dia. ( 6&quot; Plus) Ventilated Chimney Up Through the Center of the Pile,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   4.   Layers   should be   About   24&quot; thick and then Pressed Down Lightly to   16 - 18&quot; thick,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   5.   Add a 2&quot; Topping Layer of   &quot;Potting Soil&quot; with   Red Worms added (earthworms),</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   6.   Water Mist   LIGHTLY -   2 or More Times a Week, depending on Temp and Humidity</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   7.   Repeat by Adding   Another 2 Layers,   2   Weeks Later - Until it's Over   4 Ft. High.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; FOLLOW   THIS   GUIDE   METICULOUSLY -  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">        Chopping Vegetation into Fine Pieces will Speed the Compost Toward Maturity - </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">            in   6 Months or Less.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">  Quality HUMUS Will be the Result . . .</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">_____________________________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Micro-Nutrients    --   Obtained From the Clay - Use Cleaned Clay (1/3 in Soil Mix) - No Rocks !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">_____________________________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Macro-Nutrients    --   Especially Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">_____________________________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Correct Soil &quot;pH&quot;    --   The Ideal Range is   6.0 to 6.5   (Mildly Acid)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">  Acidify My Soil - How ?</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">THERE IS S-O-O MUCH FALSE INFORMATION GIVEN OUT ON THIS ONE ...</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">PEAT MOSS - Spagnum Moss Decomposes to Form &quot;Peat Moss&quot; - When Organic Vegetation is Fully Decomposed, it is N-E-U-T-R-A-L -- pH = 7.0</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">IT IS THE SAME FOR PINE NEEDLES, OAK LEAVES, OAT STRAW, HARVEST WASTE, ROOTS, SHREDDED STUMPS, SAWDUST, AGED MANURE, SPOILED HAY ...   I Could List About 300 More.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Simple Fact is This: Any of These Might be Acidic at First; Pine Needles and Oak Leaves are About pH 3.5-4.5 (VERY Acidic) When they first hit the Ground. In a Short Time - They begin to Decompose -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">They then Very Quickly (in 2 to 4 Weeks) Return to Neutral - pH = 7.0.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; You Can Use &quot;Elemental Sulfur&quot; - I buy it in 50 lb. Bags - Rated at 50 % Sulfur Content. In 5 Years, I would have helped Lower my Soil pH from 8.2 Down to 5.5-6.0 pH. I DO NOT Have 5 Years to Wait.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">I Only Use SULFUR as a Maintenance Additive.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; THE ONLY CHEMICAL (Readily Available) THAT CAN WORK FOR ME IN A SEASON or Two - IS ...   &gt;&gt; FERROUS SULFATE &lt;&lt;. THAT IS IT !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">I BUY 50 lb. Bags which are Rated at 50 % Content - And It WORKS -   IT WORKS VERY WELL !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">I HAVE HAD VERY LOW SUCCESS RATES WITH ANYTHING ELSE !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">NOTE:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Most soil &quot;Micro-Organisms&quot; live close to plant roots and are often referred to as :  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">      &gt; Rhizo-Bacteria, or Microbial Bacteria.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Bacteria live in the soil and water interface, including the film of moisture surrounding each soil particle.   Some are able to swim along by means of flagella. The majority of the beneficial soil dwelling bacteria need oxygen (O2) (and are thus termed AEROBIC BACTERIA). AEROBIC Bacteria are the most active in a soil that is moist (but not saturated).   Water Saturated Soil will deprive AEROBIC Bacteria of the oxygen (O2) that they MUST HAVE TO SURVIVE.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">__________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">SOIL   COMPOSITION    –   Porosity</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">WATER    –   Full Treatment is Given On the &quot;Plants Need&quot; Page</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">______________________________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">______________________________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">PLANT NUTRITION  –  The Complete Story</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">____________________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">To Learn About Plant Nutrition, we must first study the chemical elements and the chemical compounds necessary for plant life and plant growth. We must Learn All About the Plant's  External Supply Sources  which are  Soil and Air. Then, We must understand All of the Plant's internal Circulation and Metabolism Processes.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">In 1972, E.L. Epstein (et.al.) defined two separate criteria, which are used to determine when a chemical element (or compound) is termed Essential for plant life and growth:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">These are:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">1.) If the specified Chemical Element (or Compound) is absent, then the plant will be Unable to continue or to complete a Normal Life Cycle; –OR–</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">2.) When the specified Chemical Element (or Compound) is found to be a part ofsome essential plant component, constituent, or metabolite.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Note: This Standard is also in accordance with M. Liebig's &quot;Law of the Minimum&quot;.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">_______________________________________________________</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">There are, all together,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">17 ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Carbon (C)  (via. CO2) and  Oxygen (O2)  are absorbed from the  AIR, while All of the other Nutrients, including water, must be obtained from the soil.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Plants Must Obtain All of the Following Mineral Nutrients directly from the growing medium . . . (that is, From the Soil) :</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Primary Nutrients Are (In Order):</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; The [  3  ]  Primary Macro–Nutrients, which are:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">      –  Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; The [  3  ]  Secondary Macro–Nutrients, which are:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">      –  Calcium (Ca), Sulfur (S), and Magnesium (Mg)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">         Plus, There is the Ever–Present Macro-Nutrient: Silicon (Si).</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">In Addition, there are . . .</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; These  Micro-nutrients / or Trace Minerals:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Boron (B) – Chlorine (Cl) – Copper (Cu)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Iron (Fe) – Manganese (Mn) – Molybdenum (Mo)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Nickel (Ni) – Selenium (Se) – Zinc (Zn)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Then Finally – Sodium (Na) –and– Aluminum (Al)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Macro–Nutrients</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Macro-Nutrients –  are consumed by the Plant in much larger quantities than the Micro-Nutrients. Macro-Nutrients are present in plant tissue in quantities ranging from 0.2 % to 4.0 %. (Based upon a Dry Weight measurement).</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Micro–Nutrients</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Micro-Nutrients  – are (usually) a constant presence in plant tissue in quantities that are Measured in “Parts per Million” (or ppm), and the amounts range from 5 to 200 ppm, which is less than ( &lt; ) 0.02% Dry Weight measurement.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Most soil conditions around the world can provide plants with a somewhat adequate nutritional base. Plantings usually do not require artificial fertilizer for a plant to complete it's life cycle. However, man can and does artificially modify soil through the addition of various chemical fertilizers and soil additives, to help promote vigorous growth, and to increase the crop yield. The plants are able to obtain these extended (additional) nutrients when the fertilizer(s) is added to the soil.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">**&gt; A &quot;colloidal carbonaceous&quot; residue, known as  Humus, can serve as a significant  nutrient reservoir. Aside from the lack of water or sunshine, nutrient deficiency is the major growth limiting factor. You Cannot Produce Humus. We will be discussing Humus Later – a Lot !</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Nutrient uptake from the soil is achieved by a &quot;cat-ion&quot; exchange, (–) where the root hairs pump Hydrogen ions (H+) into the soil through &quot;proton pumps&quot;. These Hydrogen ions (H+) displace the &quot;cat-ions&quot; which are attached to the negatively charged (–) soil particles, so that the &quot;cat-ions&quot; are available for uptake by the root. Remember that the term &quot;cat-ion&quot; is derived from the Electrical term &quot;Cathode” (or Cathotic Ion), which has a Negative (–) charge.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Plant Nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the wide variation between different plants, between different species, or even various individuals of a given clone. A chemical element present at very low levels may cause a deficiency symptom(s) or NMS, while the very same element present at a higher level may cause damaging toxicity (from the over–abundance condition).</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Further, Deficiency of one element may show up as symptoms of Toxicity from another  (different) element. An abundance of one nutrient may cause a pronounced deficiency of another nutrient. Also, any lowered availability of a given nutrient such as (SO2 or SO4)  can directly affect the uptake of another nutrient, such as (NO3). In addition, (K+) (Potassium) uptake is directly influenced by the amount of (NH4+) (Ammonia) which is</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">freely available.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Root System</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Root System, and especially the root hair, is the most essential organ for the uptake  of nutrients. The structure and architecture of the root system can alter the rate of nutrient uptake. Nutrient ions are usually transported to the center of the root, the &quot;stele&quot;. This is in order for the nutrients to reach the conducting tissues in the Cambium layer, containing the Xylem and the Phloem. The Casparian strip, a cell wall outside of the “stele” but within the root itself, prevents any Passive flow of water and nutrients. This helps regulate the rate of uptake of nutrients and water. The Xylem moves water and &lt;inorganic&gt; molecules within the plant. The Phloem keeps count (and controls) &lt;organic&gt; molecule transportation. Any Water &quot;Potential&quot; (a.k.a. – Capiliary movement) plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake. If the water potential is more negative within the plant, than in the surrounding soils, the nutrients will tend to move from the Higher Solute concentration (in the soil) to the Lower Solute concentration, which is in the plant.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; &gt; &gt; &gt; &gt; &gt; &gt; &gt; &gt; &gt;</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">There are Three (3) Fundamental Ways that Plants can uptake nutrients through the root system. Those are:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; 1.) Simple Diffusion, which occurs when a non–polar molecule, such as O2, CO2, and NH3, follow a Concentration Gradient (&quot;Gradient&quot; means a constant “Rate–of–Change” in one direction – a uniform variable or difference). Thus the non-polar molecule can passively move through the &quot;lipid bi–layer&quot; membrane without the use of active transport proteins;</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Also, There is . . .</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; 2.) Facilitated Diffusion, which is the rapid movement of solutes (ions) following a Concentration Gradient, which is facilitated by the presence of very specific transport proteins;</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">And, Finally . . .</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; 3.) Active Transport, which is the active movement of ions or molecules AGAINST a Concentration Gradient. This requires an energy source, which is usually &quot;ATP^^&quot;, (a.k.a., Energy-rich Adenosine Tri–Phosphate), by use of the consumption of organic sugars – [the Plant's Food – Sucrose] to pump the ions or molecules through the membrane.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Nutrients</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Nutrients  are moved around inside of a plant, usually to where they are most needed.  For example, a plant will try to supply more of the nutrients to its younger leaves rather  than to its older ones. So when nutrients are mobile, the lack of nutrients is first visible  on older leaves. However, not all nutrients are equally mobile. When a less mobile nutrient is lacking, the younger leaves suffer - because the nutrient Does Not Move to   them, but stays lower in the plant – in the older leaves.  </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;&gt; Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K), are considered to be “Mobile” nutrients, while the other chemicals have varying degrees of mobility. This basic phenomenon is sometimes helpful in determining which nutrients a plant may be lacking.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">A Symbiotic Relationship may exist ( In Fact, It Should Exist ) between :</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">1. ) Nitrogen–fixing bacteria, (aka –  rhizobial bacteria – rhizomes), which are directly    </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">involved with “Nitrogen (N) Fixing&quot; (Occurring Only in legumes). This is the &quot;Innoculant&quot; which should be Applied to Seeds or Roots –and– is referred to Elsewhere; – and –</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">2. ) Mycorrhizae, (the Fungii) which can help to create a larger, healthier root surface    </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">area, as they function to  modify nutrients to make their uptake and utilization Expedient  , and sometimes, even Possible.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">This enables the Creation of “Humus” which is where “Compost” has been Converted by the living Micro–Organisms in the Soil – into an Altered Chemical Form, which the Plant's Root System can readily Absorb, and which the plant(s) can utilize. IF the Plant's Cambium Layer can Transport these compounds, then the Plant can Utilize them.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">3. ) The Soil's &quot;pH&quot; – Both of these Mutualistic relationships significantly enhance, or even enable the Plant's Nutrient Uptake. The Soil's &quot;pH&quot; ( Below 6.0 is Preferred, &lt; 6.5   is Crucial ) is next. This being the 3rd  and Final Factor in determining a Plant's Successful Nutrient Uptake.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Though  Nitrogen (N)  is plentiful (78%) in the Earth's atmosphere, relatively few plants actually engage in nitrogen &quot;Fixing&quot; (which is the conversion of atmospheric Nitrogen (N) into a biologically useful form in the Soil). Most plants therefore require Nitrogen compounds to be present In The Soil in which they grow. These Nitrogen Sources can either be supplied by decaying matter, nitrogen fixing bacteria (the rhizobia) –or– &quot;Innoculant&quot; on the Legume's Root System), animal waste (Urea), –or– through the mechanical application of some specifically manufactured fertilizers . . .</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">(Which usually will contain N, for example, as ammonium sulfate), and which has been</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">applied for this specific purpose.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">PROCESSES IN GENERAL</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Plants uptake essential elements from the soil through their roots and from the Air.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Remember, &quot;Air&quot; is 78% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen. Plants can absorb Carbon (CO2)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">through their leaves. Nutrient uptake from the soil is achieved by the &quot;cat-ion&quot;</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">exchange, referred to above. This is where root hairs pump hydrogen ions (H+) into</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">the soil through proton pumps. These hydrogen ions displace the &quot;cat-ions&quot; attached</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">to negatively charged soil particles, so that the &quot;cat-ions&quot; are available for uptake by</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">the plant's root system. In the plant's leaves, Stomata (pores) open up to take in</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">carbon dioxide (CO2) and to expel oxygen. The carbon dioxide molecules provide the</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Primary Carbon (C) source Necessary for Photosynthesis to occur.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">THE FUNCTION and The USE OF NUTRIENTS</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Each of the individual Required Nutrients is used in a different location within the plant, and for different essential functions. We will cover Each of these in sufficient detail for this Basic Level.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The MACRO-NUTRIENTS</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Macro-Nutrients (in Passive Form) which are derived from the &quot;AIR&quot; are:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">1. )  Carbon</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Carbon forms the backbone of many plant's bio-molecules, including starches and cellulose. Carbon is fixed through photosynthesis from the carbon dioxide in the air and is a part of the carbohydrates that store energy in the plant.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">2. )  Hydrogen</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Hydrogen also is necessary for producing sugars and for building the plant's structure. It is obtained almost entirely from water. Hydrogen ions are essential for a proton gradient</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">(variance) that helps drive the electron transport chain necessary for  Photosynthesis  and for the plant's respiration to occur.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">3. )  Oxygen</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Oxygen by itself (O2) -or- in the molecules of H2O or CO2 is necessary for any plant's   cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the continuous process of generating energy-rich &quot;Adenosine Tri-Phosphate&quot; ( &quot;ATP&quot;^^) by way of the consumption of the sugars (plant food) which are created by Photosynthesis. Plants produce oxygen gas during the Photosynthesis process (This is the First Stage), to then produce Glucose (or Sucrose - pure natural sugars) – (This is the second stage).</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The plant then requires oxygen to undergo direct aerobic photometric respiration and thus break down this glucose (pure sugar) to then be able to produce the Energy Activating compound (&quot;ATP&quot;^^).</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The MACRO–NUTRIENTS</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The Primary Macro-Nutrients -- which are derived from the Soil:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">4. )  Nitrogen (N)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Nitrogen is an Essential Component in all proteins. Nitrogen deficiency most often results in stunted growth, slow growth, and significant chlorosis. Nitrogen deficient plants may also exhibit a purple appearance on the stems, petioles and the underside of leaves from an accumulation of Antho-cyanin pigments. Most of the Nitrogen taken up by plants is directly from the soil in the natural forms of (NO3–), although in acid environments such as boreal forests where nitrification is far less likely to occur, ammonium compounds (NH4+) is more likely to be the dominating source of nitrogen.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">NOTE: Amino acids (Proteins) can ONLY be built from (NH4+), So . . . the (NO3–) must be reduced (Chemically Combined and Converted). Under many agricultural settings, Nitrogen is the limiting nutrient of high growth rates. Some plants require more Nitrogen than others, such as corn (Zea mays). Because Nitrogen is very mobile, the older leaves will exhibit Chlorosis and Necrosis earlier than the younger leaves. Soluble forms of nitrogen are transported as &quot;Amines&quot; and &quot;Amides&quot;.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">5. )  Phosphorus (P)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Phosphorus is important in plant bio-energetics. As a component of &quot;ATP&quot;, Phosphorus is needed for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy during the Photosynthesis process. Phosphorus can also be used to modify the activity of various enzymes by a step called &quot;phosphorylation&quot;, and this process can be used for cell &quot;in–step&quot; signaling. Since &quot;ATP&quot; can be the basis for the bio-synthesis of many plant bio-molecules, phosphorus is important for plant growth and for flower and seed formation. Phosphate esters make up the DNA, RNA, and phospho-lipids. This is, most commonly, in the form of polyprotic Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) in the soil, but it is taken up most readily in the form of H2PO4. Phosphorus is quite limited in most soils, because it is hydrolized and released very slowly from mostly insoluble phosphates. Under Most environmental conditions, this is the limiting element because of the (P)'s small concentration in the soil and the high demand by plants and micro-organisms. Plants can increase their Phosphorus uptake by a mutualism with mycorrhizae (essential soil micro-organisms).</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">A Phosphorus deficiency in plants is characterized by an intense green coloration in leaves. If the plant is experiencing high Phosphorus deficiencies, the leaves may become denatured and show noticeable signs of necrosis. Occasionally the leaves may appear purple from an accumulation of Antho-Cyanin. Because Phosphorus is a mobile nutrient, older leaves will show the first signs of deficiency.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;&gt; Note: It is helpful to apply a High Phosphorus content fertilizer, such as bone meal,</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">to perennials (and to many other plants) to aid them with successful root formation. (This</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">will certainly Speed up the process). The plants will Also Benefit from the Additional Calcium (Ca) from the bone meal.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">6. )  Potassium (K)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Potassium regulates the opening and closing of the &quot;Stomata&quot; by a Potassium ion pump. Since stomata are important in every plant's aspiration and water rationing, potassium reduces water loss from the leaves and thereby increases drought tolerance.   Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis or inter-veinal chlorosis. (K+) is highly mobile and it can aid in balancing the &quot;An-ion&quot; (+) and &quot;Cat-Ion&quot; (–) charges within the plant. It is also highly solubility in water, and it will readily leach out of rocky or sandy soils. This water solubility can quickly result in Potassium deficiency within the plant. Potassium (K) also serves as an activator of enzymes used in photosynthesis and in respiration. Potassium is used to build cellulose (structure) and it aids in the photosynthesis process, by the formation of a so–called &quot;chlorophyll precursor&quot;. Potassium deficiency may also result in a higher risk of pathogens (diseases), wilting, chlorosis, so-called &quot;brown spotting&quot;, and the greater likelyhood of damage from frost and/or excess solar heating.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The MACRO - NUTRIENTS – Continued</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Macro-Nutrients (These are Secondary and Tertiary) - from Soil/ Root Uptake</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">7. )  Calcium (Ca)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Calcium regulates the transport of other nutrients into the plant and it is also involved    </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">in the activation (and usage) of certain plant enzymes. Calcium (Ca) deficiency results</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">in stunting. This nutrient is directly involved in photosynthesis and the health of the</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">overall plant structure.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">NOTE: (**) Blossom End Rot is caused by a serious, on-going Nutrient deficiency, resulting from inadequate Calcium, primarily, as well as other essential nutrients (especially Phosphorous).</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">8. )  Magnesium (Mg)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Magnesium is an important component of chlorophyll, which is the most critical plant    </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">pigment – VITAL to photosynthesis. It is also important in the production of ATP (see ^^)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">through its role as an enzyme co–factor. Magnesium deficiency can also result in</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">inter–veinal chlorosis. The Careful use of &quot;Epsom Salts&quot; helps here – Test Before Applying.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">9. )  Silicon (Si)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">In plants, Silicon strengthens (reinforces) cell walls. It improves the overall plant strength, vigorous growth and health, and crop productivity. Other benefits of silicon to plants include improved drought and frost resistance, decreasing the grain crop's lodging</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">potential (&quot;blow–down&quot;) and the boosting of any plant's natural pest and disease fighting</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">tools arsenal and systems. Silicon has also been shown to improve overall plant vigor and</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">energy levels (physiology) by improving the root mass and density. It also increases above</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">ground plant biomass and crop yields. Silicon is not usually considered an essential</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">element for a plant's growth and development (except for certain plant species –</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">sugarcane and members of the horsetail family), Silicon is considered a beneficial element</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">in some of the various growing regions throughout the world. This is due, primarily, to its</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">many benefits to numerous plant species when they are under some form of pro-biotic or</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">anabiotic (or abiotic) stress. Silicon is currently under active consideration by the “Association of American Plant Food Control Officials” (AAPFCO) for elevation to the status of a &quot;plant beneficial substance&quot;.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;&gt; Worthy of NOTE:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Silicon is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. Higher plants differ</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">characteristically in their capacity to take up, and/ or utilize Silicon in natural form.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Depending on their SiO2 (Silicon diOxide) content, they can be divided into three major groups:</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   A.) Grains and Grasses</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   B.) Root Crops and Legumes</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">   C.) Fruiting Plants (Basically, All Others)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">10. )  Sulphur (S)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Sulphur is a structural component of some amino acids and some vitamins, and is essential in the manufacturing of chloroplasts. Sulphur is also found in the Iron/ Sulphur complexes of the electron transport chains which are active in photosynthesis. It is immobile (within the plant) and any deficiency therefore affects younger tissues first. Symptoms of deficiency include yellowing of leaves and stunted growth.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;&gt; An Important Note: Iron/ Sulfur Compounds are the ONLY WAY to overcome any seriously alkaline soil pH Levels ( pH of 7.5 or more) in a Reasonable Time Frame.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The MICRO-NUTRIENTS</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">The So-Called &quot;Beneficial Elements&quot;</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&quot;Some elements are directly involved in plant metabolism . . . Others are not.&quot;</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">This is from (Arnon and Stout, circa.1939). However, this principle does not account for the so-called beneficial elements, whose presence, while not required, has clearly positive effects on plant growth. Some of these Mineral elements may either stimulate growth but are not essential for growth, or are essential only for certain plant species, or under certain specific conditions. These are usually defined as &quot;Beneficial Elements&quot;.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;  Boron (B)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Boron is important for the binding of pectins in the (RGII) region of the primary cell wall. Secondary roles may occur in sugar transport, cell division, and synthesizing certain</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">enzymes. Boron deficiency causes necrosis in young leaves and sometimes, noticeable</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">stunting.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;  Chlorine (Cl)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Chlorine, occurring in the compound form chloride, is necessary for osmosis and ionic    </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">balance; it also plays a role in photosynthesis.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;  Cobalt (Co)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Cobalt has proven to be beneficial to at least some plants, but is essential in others, such as legumes where it is required for nitrogen fixation, for the symbiotic relationship it has with nitrogen–fixing bacteria. The requirement of (Co) for (N2) fixation in legumes and non-legumes have been documented clearly. Protein synthesis of the Rhizobium (bacterium) is impaired when there is a (Co) deficiency. It is still not clear whether (Co) has direct effect on higher plant functions.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;  Copper (Cu)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Copper (Cu) is a Very Important component of the entire Photosynthesis process. Symptoms for Copper deficiency include chlorosis. (Cu) is involved in many enzyme processes. It is directly involved in the the manufacture of lignin (for cell walls). It is essential for any grain, for quality grain production. It is often hard to identify (and to   retain) in some soil conditions.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;  Iron (Fe)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Iron is necessary for photosynthesis and is also present as an enzyme co–factor in plants. Iron deficiency can result in observable inter–veinal chlorosis and necrosis. Iron is not included in the structural part of chlorophyll, but (Fe) is very much essential for its synthesis. A Copper deficiency can be responsible for amplifying any noticeable Iron deficiency.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;  Manganese (Mn)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Manganese is necessary for photosynthesis. This includes the building of chloroplasts.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Manganese deficiency will likely result in various coloration abnormalities, such as &quot;off-</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">colored&quot; spots on the foliage.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt;  Molybdenum (Mo)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Molybdenum is a cofactor to various enzymes, and it is important in building the amino acids (Proteins). It is Involved in active Nitrogen metabolism. Molybdenum (Mo) is a part of the Nitrate (NO3) reductase enzyme.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; Nickel (Ni)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">In higher plants (the more complex ones), Nickel is absorbed by plants in the form of the Ni2+ ion. Nickel is essential for the activation of Urease, which is an enzyme involved</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">with nitrogen metabolism. This enzyme is required to process Urea (from the Organic    </font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Fertilizers). Without enough Nickel, Urea will accumulate to toxic levels, leading to the</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">formation of necrotic lesions. In lower plants, Nickel activates several different</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">enzymes which are involved in a variety of processes. (Ni) can be a substitute for Zinc</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">and Iron as a co-factor in certain specific enzymes.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; Sodium (Na)  (Common Salt is a Sodium compound – NaCl)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Sodium is involved in the regeneration of phospho-enolpyruvate in CAM and C4 plants. Sodium (Na) can also be a substitute for potassium in some plants. Sodium Improves the crop quality of Root Crops, and it will improve the taste by increasing the sucrose (organic sugars) content within a plant's stalk and root system. Sodium can (sometimes) replace potassium's regulation of stomatal opening and closing.</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; Zinc (Zn)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Zinc is required in a large number of enzymes and (Zn) does play an essential role in the DNA transcription. A typical symptom of Zinc (Zn) deficiency is the stunted growth of</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">leaves, commonly known as &quot;Little Leaf&quot; or &quot;Leaf Dwarf&quot;. This is caused by the oxidative</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">degradation of the growth hormone &quot;Auxin&quot;.(^ – sic.)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; Vanadium (Va)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Vanadium may be required by some plants, but at very low levels of concentration. It may also be substituted for molybdenum. Both Selenium and sodium absorption may also benefit from the presence of small amounts of Vanadium (Va).</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">And, Finally . . .</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif"><br /></font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">&gt; Aluminium (Al)</font></p><p><font face="Georgia, serif">Tea plants have a high tolerance for (Al) toxicity and their growth is stimulated by an (Al) application. The possible reason for this is the prevention of Cu, Mn or P toxicity effects. There have also been some reports that (Al) may serve as fungicide against certain types of blight or &quot;root rot&quot;.</font></p><p><br /></p>